US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1100. CHRISTOPHER A. SCOTT is a professor of geography and development and research professor of water resources policy at the University of Arizona, focusing on river-basin resilience in the US Southwest, the Andes, and Himalayas; email: cascott@email.arizona.edu. The Wild & Scenic River Study Process. 2011. Celilo Falls, located on the Columbia River East of The Dalles, Oregon, was an important trading area and sacred fishing grounds for several tribes in the region before it was completely flooded by the con-truction of the Dalles Dam in 1957 (The Yakama Nation Main Agency Offices 2014). Fornander, D. E. 2008. 1994). Linked to ecological processes is a range of human interactions with river systems, understood in social-ecological systems terms (Gunderson et al. (Issues July 2003.). 2015. Lionel Adam. Seattle Times. 2005. Harnish, R. A., R. Sharma, G. A. McMichael, R.B. Rewilding. Jackson, K. 2012. Rewilding North America: A Vision for Conservation in the 21st Century. BioScience 47: 769–784. Their work showed that most visitors did not feel crowded on their trip. The White Salmon is a glacier -fed river originating on the slopes of Mount Adams and emptying into the Columbia River. Sawtooth National Forest (SNF), Sawtooth National Recreation Area (SNRA). Before the Condit Dam was constructed, the Yakama used to fish for salmon and steelhead on the White Salmon River, and its confluence with the Columbia is a traditional trading area (Washines 2011). This approach is less formulaic than the conventional agency-based approach and often requires professional judgment, with input sought and documented from organizations and individuals familiar with specific river resources (US Department of Agriculture [USDA] 2011). The Yakama Nation was a key player in the removal of the Condit Dam in 2011. Ultimately, agencies, an array of stakeholders, the Yakama Nation, and the public need to come together to make conscious decisions about the kind of recreation opportunities and conditions they want to see and properly man- age for on the White Salmon River. 2004. The White Salmon has experienced tremendous growth from approximately 4,000 visitors in 1987 to nearly 20,000 in 2007 (Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Interagency Team 2014). [3] Originating on the slopes of Mount Adams, it flows into the Columbia Gorge near the community of Underwood. The extent to which displacement reduces reproductive success has not been empirically determined. 1993. Full day whitewater tours will also take visitors rafting through the former Condit Dam/Northwestern Lake portion of the White Salmon River and to the Columbia River confluence. Rivers are crucial to the ecological functioning of core areas, particularly because of biotic and abiotic corridor connectivity, trophic order in lentic (wetlands) and lotic (rapids) systems, and biodiversity and habitat value in general. These and other instream flow characteristics, including trans- port of sediment, organic matter, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients, are important factors in river rewilding. In the case of the Elwha, although the dams were originally perceived to provide various social-ecological benefits to the surrounding region, the cultural and environmental benefits of removing and rewilding the river can ultimately outweigh costs. Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Interagency Team. A. Stanford. Bodies of Water. Guided whitewater trips can be arranged with commercial outfitters with special-use permits for the White Salmon. Although white-water rafting is economically important to many rural communities, it may have adverse effects during pre-spawn holding and spawning periods (Sawtooth National Forest [SNF] 1995; NOAA Fisheries 2003). Rafts and kayaks floating down the river while salmon are staging, selecting redd locations, and/or spawning, have been anecdotally recognized to cause displacement of fish from redds (SNF 1995). The majority (77%) of visitors reported 15 people or fewer when asked what their preferred group size is to run the river. Unpublished Phd dissertation. During the summer of 2011 Pacficorp drilled and blasted a drain tunnel at the base of the dam. To put use levels on the White Salmon River in perspective, about 26,000 people raft the Colorado River from Lee’s Ferry to Diamond Creek each year on permitted trips (Jackson 2012), including both private and commercial users. Yakama Nation history. Condit Dam Removal, White Salmon River, Washington - Interfluve Condit Dam Removal, White Salmon River, Washington We developed the sediment management plan for breaching the 95-year-old, 125-foot-high Condit Dam located in southern Washington State. 69 Reviews #12 of 60 things to do in Hood River. WHITE SALMON, Wash., U.S. 10/27/11 (PennWell) — With a muffled roar and a puff of pulverized concrete, PacifiCorp blasted open 14.7-MW Condit Dam on Oct. 26, ending nearly a century of power generation and opening 33 miles of Washington’s White Salmon River to steelhead and salmon migration. Abstract: Dam removal is a major contribution to rewilding of rivers, through restoring riverine ecosystems; reconnecting upstream and downstream wilderness for fish, predators, and humans; and enhancing social-ecological resilience to climate change and other stressors. However, the construction of the system of dams throughout the basin has radically altered the salmon life cycle and, consequently, the lifestyle of the Native people who have historically relied upon them (Harnish et al. White Salmon River. Restoring ecological functions in impaired river systems is an important subset of broader rewilding efforts. of the White Salmon River are high gradient seasonal streams created by snow and glacial run off. Specifically, for the  White Salmon, does recreational boating compromise salmon habitat? Great White River Rafting. In 1986, the lower White Salmon between Gilmer Creek and Buck Creek was designated wild and scenic based on the formal approach outlined above. The White Salmon River is a 44-mile (71 km) tributary of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. Visitors’ expectation as to how many other groups are acceptable to see during their trip was 5 times on average. Increased stresses such as increased boating use on the river may be detrimental and result in slowing down the rewilding and recovery processes. The Salmon River is located in Idaho in the western United States, also known as "The River of No Return. Bedrock confinement extends upstream for several kilometers, including the 3 m tall Husum Falls 7km upstream of the dam site. Therefore, per width and length, the White Salmon River is one of the most heavily used rafting and kayaking rivers in the country, with the Forest Service being the permitting agency for the commercial rafting companies (Gimblett et al. After nearly a century of serving customers, PacifiCorp began in late August of 2011 to physically remove the dam, fulfilling a … The second, which is gaining wider appeal, involves assessment of eligibility and suitability for designation by interdisciplinary study teams that may incorporate local, tribal, county, and state governments, along with landowners, user groups, and other major stakeholders. 2010. Cook, WA: US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory. University of Arizona, Tucson. 2014. John T wrote a review Jul 2018. 2015. In the face of increasing river use, the challenge is to make deliberate and well-informed decisions about what kind of place the White Salmon River should be for consistency with its wild and scenic river designation and the mix of recreation opportunities desired in the future. Following our definition of river rewilding above, the case of the White Salmon River after the Condit Dam removal indicates that: (1) aquatic and river-corridor ecosystems are actively undergoing restoration, (2) connectivity has been reestablished especially for salmon to migrate upstream of the dam site (but with likely impacts from heavy river use), (3) anecdotal evidence suggests that hydro-geomorphological conditions for sediment and water quality have improved, and (4) social-ecological values remain heavily oriented toward river-running recreation with potential high impact on Yakama Indigenous cultural values and aesthetic values of local landowners. The Old Condit Powerhouse still stands as a historic/visual reminder when over 14.7 MW of hydro power was once produced along the White Salmon River. This river offers some of the best class III– IV rapids in a natural setting and it is runnable year-round. Poff, N. L., J. D. Allan, M. B. Bain, J. R. Karr, K. L. Prestegaard, B. D. Richter, and J. C. Stromberg. Two principal avenues exist to determine eligibility. Lower Deschutes River Management Plan Record of Decision. 2015). The breach allowed the river to flow unimpeded for the first time in nearly a century. The Condit was decommissioned largely to reintroduce anadromous fish to the river and involved collaboration among many interests. The White Salmon River is more than a playground for whitewater enthusiasts. Correspondingly, when asked how many people are in their group, the vast majority (90%) stated 15 people or fewer. On the White Salmon River, NOAA Fisheries are responsible for upholding the protection of endangered species such as Chinook salmon. The Condit removal has provided an increased opportunity for anadromous fish in the river upstream of the old dam site to BZ falls (Figure 2). The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act provides overall legal authority and requirements for planning and management of rivers that are components of the National Wild and Scenic River System. 14th Annual White Salmon River Fest – 2020 dates TBD The White Salmon River Fest celebrates the White Salmon River, the communities, and the natural and cultural history that surrounds this watershed. Condit Dam was breached in 2011, revealing tree stumps 98 years after the area was logged. 2003. It is estimated that approximately 25,000 boaters, mostly in paddle rafts and kayaks, use the river each year.

In late October, 2011, the White Salmon River in Washington state flowed again as the nearly 100-year-old Condit Dam was disabled with explosives. The White Salmon River is used for whitewater boating nearly year-round. The pre-dam average channel slope through the reservoir reach is about 0.009m/m (Figure 2d). In 2010, Burns et al. Do current River Use Levels Threaten the Wild Salmon ORVs? Salmon Habitat Assessment for Conservation Planning in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington. 2009 White Salmon Wild and Scenic River Recreation Use Study: An Evaluation of River Use Patterns. US Department of Interior. Spring and Fall Chinook Salmon, Coho, Steelhead, Pacific Lamprey, and other fish species only had access to a 3.3 miles of habitat below Condit Dam. The Columbia River Inter- Tribal Fish Commission. Most visitors indicated that it does matter if they see other groups while on the river, and it also matters if they must wait before starting their activity. US Department of Interior (USDI). Native fish species, including Chinook salmon, now can return to a river they have not visited for nearly a century (Figure 3). In addition, other assumptions suggest rafts and kayaks (float boats) may impact spawning salmon by either delaying onset of spawning or eliciting more rapid spawning than would occur under natural conditions (Fornander 2008). Condit Dam Hydroelectric Project Final Supplemental EIS i Fact Sheet Project Title Condit Dam Removal Proponent PacifiCorp 825 NE Multnomah St., Suite 1500 Portland, Oregon 97232-2135 Proposed Action PacifiCorp proposes to remove the Condit Hydroelectric Project on the White Salmon River in The natural flow regime: A paradigm for river conservation and restoration. In both cases, protecting and enhancing the free-flowing condition, water quality, and ORVs formed the basis for management of the wild and scenic river corridor. We believe the recovery of the White Salmon River is threatened by increasing human use during post- dam removal rewilding. B. Logan, and M. C. Liermann. MIA HAMMERSLEY is a student of the Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy Program at the James E. Rogers College of Law at the University of Arizona and completed a master’s of science in water, society and policy at the University of Arizona’s School of Natural Resources and the Environment; email: miahammersley@email.arizona.edu. Dams also damaged native cultural and livelihood values on the river. Successful and illustrative examples of rewilding through decommissioning dams are unfolding on the Elwha River on the Olympic Peninsula in western Washington (East et al. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71(4): 602–615. In late October, 2011, the White Salmon River in Washington state flowed again as the nearly 100-year-old Condit Dam was disabled. In 2011, 700 tons of dynamite released the dam’s sediment and waters from Northwest Lake. Parts of the river have been designated Wild and Scenic. Gimblett, H. R. 2016. Fisheries 19(8): 11–19. When Condit Dam was completed on the White Salmon River in 1913, it blocked salmon and steelhead runs and damaged the river's ecosystem. The opportunity for the boating community to float past the dam site and continue down to the Columbia River has prompted much interest. 1991. Relatively low gradient tributaries such as Trout Lake Creek enter the mainstem from the west. As the most popular river in the Columbia River Gorge, the White Salmon is a top destination for boaters nationwide. Recent studies were undertaken in 2014 (Gimblett et al. River flows and water wars: Emerging science for environmental decision making. Beautiful place. White Salmon River. Caution is still advised as the rapids on the lower river are significant. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(6): 298–306. Sandom, C., C. J. Donlan, J. C. Svenning, and D. Hansen. The dam has also blocked the upstream spawning migration of white sturgeon, although they still spawn in the Columbia River below Bonneville… 1999. There is concern among the federal land management agencies regarding effects of boating-related activities on recolonization and proliferation of endangered Chinook salmon (Hardiman and Allen 2015), an important concern in relation to ecosystem restoration. In 1986, the lower White Salmon River was designated Wild and Scenic between Gilmer Creek and Buck Creek. The process involved collaboration among a diverse group of stakeholders, from PacifiCorp (the owner of the dam), the Yakama Nation, NOAA Fisheries, federal and state agencies including the Forest Service (USFS), various environmental groups, and river raft/ running companies. Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). 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